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This is part of the ritual of Tribal Council, because in this game, fire represents life. As long as you have fire, you are still in this game. When your fire's gone, so are you.

–Jeff Probst

Tribal Council is an elimination ceremony that usually happens every third night in the game of Survivor, where the contestants are being held accountable for their actions in the game, usually with one person being voted out of the tribe.

U.S. Tribal Council Sets

International Tribal Council Sets

For the list of Tribal Council sets from non-U.S. versions, see Tribal Council/International.


The Tribal Council area is designed to strike fear into the contestants, adding up to the tension of voting. Intricately designed by the Survivor Art Department, the Tribal Council area can range from looking like a makeshift hut, a temple, or an enormous stilt house, depending on the theme of the season. It should be noted however that the Survivor: Palau and Survivor: Guatemala Tribal Council sets were actual archaeological sites.

Tribal Council usually starts at sundown. When a tribe visits Tribal Council for the first time, its members are given torches and are to dip them in the central fire pit. The host then reminds the castaways that the fire on their torch symbolizes their life in the game, and once it is extinguished by him, their time in the game is over. This metaphor is used commonly within the show's theme. The castaways will have a conversation with the host for hours, usually edited in the actual episode to only feature the highlights, regarding camp life, strategy, social interactions, and events he witnessed at the challenges throughout the cycle. The session oftentimes leads to tension-filled discourses among tribe members, and contestants in precarious situations may reveal important information or plead their case to keep themselves in the game. If a castaway fails to give a satisfying answer to the host, the host reserves the right to test that contestant further by peppering them with more incriminating questions.

The Boran tribe's first Tribal Council (Africa).

Once the host finishes interrogating the contestants, they will, one by one, proceed to a distant voting booth where they will write the name of the castaway they want to vote out and state the reason why they are voting for that player. Occasionally, these confessionals are shown on television, but to increase suspense, not all voting confessionals are aired. Up until Survivor: Redemption Island, these confessionals could be viewed in full through CBS's YouTube account and the show's DVD releases. After voting, the players would insert their ballot inside an urn, which the host later collects. The host tallies the votes and reveals the results to the players. When the votes are read, the order that the votes are pulled has also usually been manipulated by production to extract the most suspense from the players during the tally. All votes are final and cannot be further altered though, in theory, there could have been an exemption in Survivor: Panama, Survivor: Cook Islands, Survivor: Cagayan, Survivor: Kaôh Rōng, and Survivor: Heroes vs. Healers vs. Hustlers due to the powers of a special Hidden Immunity Idol that could be used to negate votes after the deciding vote is revealed. Beginning in Survivor: Fiji, the host would ask the tribe if any one of them possesses a Hidden Immunity Idol and feels the need to use it before the votes are read.

Once the vote tally has exceeded the plurality needed, the host stops tallying, pronouncing that player eliminated from the game, keeping the remaining votes a secret, though typically, the unread votes are implied to be for the eliminated contestant. The eliminated player presents the host their torch and the host extinguishes (known in the series as "snuffing") it, telling that contestant the parting words, "The tribe has spoken," before asking the player to leave the Tribal Council area. Eliminated players walk away from the Tribal Council grounds into a small confessional booth, where they can air out their grievances and reflections, which are shown during the end credits.

In rarer cases, if a starting tribe has been decimated to its last two members and no merge has been announced, these two players will compete in a fire-making challenge where the winner stays and the loser is eliminated from the game.

Double Tribal Councils

Following the increase of contestants in some season beyond 16, Double Tribal Councils have occurred, wherein multiple tribes go to separate Tribal Council sessions to eliminate one of their own. This is to quickly reduce the number of remaining castaways since having an expanded cast breaks the conventional three-day cycle. The first Double Tribal Council happened in Survivor: Pearl Islands to give way for the returning Outcasts, which, in giving two players a chance to return, meant that 16 vote outs had to occur this season rather than the standard 14. In Survivor: Palau, Survivor: Cook Islands, Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains, and Survivor: Nicaragua, the tribes competed in a Reward Challenge for a feast to be eaten at Tribal Council, where the winning tribe gets to listen to the losing tribe's Tribal Council. Regardless of the result of the Reward Challenge, both tribes would vote someone out. In each of those four instances, the winning tribe voted someone out first, and all included an opportunity for individual immunity either for one player on just one or both tribes. In Survivor: Winners at War and Survivor 41, the two tribes that lost a pre-determined three-tribe Immunity Challenge would attend Tribal Council to vote off one member each.

In Survivor: Samoa, a Double Tribal Council was slated to occur on Day 15, but it was postponed when Russell Swan suffered severe exhaustion during the Reward Challenge, which led to his evacuation. The said challenge was called off with neither tribe winning the reward; instead, they were merely instructed to proceed to a Joint Tribal Council for further notice. There, the castaways were relieved when host Jeff Probst announced that Russell's condition was improving and that the planned double elimination was canceled due in part to his impressive tenure as "chief" of Galu.

Joint Tribal Councils

Some seasons have held Joint Tribal Councils, wherein more than one tribe would attend Tribal Council as a single group. The first Joint Tribal Council occurred in Survivor: Samoa in lieu of the planned Double Tribal Council after Russell Swan was medically evacuated from the game. This occurred again in Survivor: One World after Colton Cumbie was evacuated, where it was announced that the two tribes had merged. In both cases, no elimination occurred at Tribal Council in lieu of the evacuations.

The Manono and Salani tribes were merged at a Joint Tribal Council following Colton Cumbie's medical evacuation (One World).

In Survivor: Game Changers and Survivor: Edge of Extinction, only the first-place tribe in a particular three-tribe Immunity Challenge won immunity, while the two losing tribes were sent to a Joint Tribal Council to vote as one group, with only one player being eliminated that night.

Tie Votes

Please see Tiebreaker.

Jury Phase

See main article: Jury.

Final Tribal Council

For more information, see Final Tribal Council.

Tribal Council-related twists

For more information, see Double Elimination.

In Survivor: Cook Islands, a special twist caused the Rarotonga tribe to vote another player out immediately after they had already eliminated a tribe member. During their Tribal Council, Rarotonga eliminated two tribe members in two separate voting rounds. This also occurred in Survivor: Redemption Island, Survivor: South Pacific, Survivor: Ghost Island, and Survivor: Island of the Idols.

Unlike Cook Islands, Redemption Island and South Pacific each had an impromptu Immunity Challenge between the votes, and the Tribal Councils in question were conducted after the two starting tribes had merged. In Ghost Island, Island of the Idols, and Survivor 41, a single Immunity Challenge was held, with the merged tribe being divided into two groups that would attend two separate Tribal Councils. Individual immunity was offered to each group in an endurance-style challenge, and whoever lasted the longest overall would win their group the privilege of attending Tribal Council second, thus knowing who was voted out from the other group.



  • Tribal Council sets may or may not have a roof, so in some seasons, castaways might suffer getting wet during a rainy Tribal Council.
  • The castaways are told where to sit by producers at Tribal Council.
  • The Survivor: Tocantins Tribal Council set was repaired several times, because the roof caught on fire during hot days.
  • There are nine tribes that have never visited Tribal Council: Viveros, Bayoneta, Puka Puka, Tandang, Tavua, Yanuya, Tiva, Kama and Luvu.
    • Tandang and Luvu are the only starting tribes to have all of their original members enter the merge.
  • Survivor: Philippines winner Denise Stapley became the first contestant to go to every single Tribal Council in a season.
  • Ian Rosenberger was the first contestant to be voted out outside of Tribal Council. He was followed by Brandon Hantz.
    • Beginning from Survivor: David vs. Goliath, the walkway to the voting booth is specifically designed to hide the booth away from the contestants to prevent them from catching those who will play game advantages that are such as the Idol Nullifier and Shot in the Dark die.[1]
    • In Survivor 41, the voting booth was the place where players who either made a decision during the summit or opened the Beware Advantage were informed whether or not their gamble had paid off via a note put on top of the unused parchments.
  • Prior to the show being filmed in high-definition, Tribal Council sets were lit only by the fire pit and torches. By Gabon, a few electric lights with red gel were installed to provide better exposure of the vicinity and the contestants.
  • Red fire, which symbolically represents life, is used to light the entire Tribal Council set, except the walkway where the eliminated contestants exit, where the color of the torches is blue, which represents death and sorrow.[2]
  • Tribal Council can actually last from 45 to 90 minutes, but is edited down to the 10 minutes of it that is actually aired.[3]
  • After collecting the votes, host Jeff Probst consults with producers, who have been watching the voting confessional footage live in a production booth far away from Tribal Council. Based upon what they have seen and the actual outcome of the vote, they decide the order in which Jeff will read the votes aloud, organizing them for maximum drama and selecting which contestants' votes will be shown on television. This is why the votes Jeff reveals first are the ones viewers have already seen.[4]
  • The Survivor: Island of the Idols Tribal Council had a secret hut where the mentors, Rob Mariano and Sandra Diaz-Twine watched the proceedings.

See also


Survivor Gameplay
Challenge Advantage · Do-It-Yourself Challenge · Duel · Family Visit · Immunity Challenge (Final Immunity Challenge) · Immunity Idol · Immunity Necklace · Medallion of Power · Reward Challenge · Survivor Auction
Edge of Extinction · Ejection · Evacuation · Final Tribal Council · Jury · Quit · Redemption Island · Snuffer · Sole Survivor · Tiebreaker · Torch · Tribal Council · Urn
Alliance · Pagonging · Split Vote (Strategy)
Social Dynamics
Final Two · Final Three · Merge · Tribe

Battle of the Sexes · Blood vs. Water · Brawn vs. Brains vs. Beauty · Old vs. Young · Returning Players · Schoolyard Pick · Tribes Divided by Ethnicity

Tribal Council-Related

Advantage Amulet · Do or Die · Double Elimination · Double Tribal Council · Extra Vote · Hidden Immunity Idol (History) · Idol Nullifier · Joint Tribal Council · Juror Removal · Legacy Advantage · Knowledge is Power · Shot in the Dark · Vote Blocker · Vote Steal


Advantage Menu · Buried Treasure · Day Zero · Exile Island · Fake Merge · Fire Token · First Impressions · Ghost Island · Haves vs. Have Nots · Hourglass · Island of the Idols · Kidnapping · Looting · Mutiny · One World · Reward Steal · Summit · The Outcasts · Tribe Leader · Tribe Switch

Fan Favorite Award · Lawsuits and Legal Action · Ponderosa · Reunion Show
Buff · Confessional · Luxury Item · Rites of Passage · Survivor Rulebook · Ulonging